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Magal Multiple Campus
Practical of Sociology And Anthropology
Submitted by : Manisha Rai Class : 12
（提出 マニシャ ライ １２クラス）
Research the cultural change and the condition of youth in
your village or town
A research done in Sahidbhumi
Among the seven provincial states of Nepal, Dhankuta lies at the province no.1 according to the federal affairs. Dhankuta is located at the eastern part of Nepal. The clean and green environment, the natural beauty and the continuous flow of river basin are the identity and the objective of Dhankuta district. Dhankuta is suttounded by hills in every side. The total area of this district is 891 sq. km.
Dhankiuta is divided into seven municipality in which three are urban and
four are rural. Among them Sahidbhumi rural municipality is also one. Sahidbhumi municipality was renamed from Khalsha Chhintang Sahidbhumi. Sahidbhumi
rural municipality was formed by merging three villages khoku, Chhintang and
Ankhisalla. The headquarter of this municipality is at Piple Danda Khokku. The
toral area of Sahidbhumi rural municipality is 99.5 sq. km with the total
population of 18,730 according to the census 2011 A.D.
Social Background :
Among the total population of
Sahidbhumi rural municipality, 80% are
Rai, 15 % are limbu and 5 % are ther ethnic groups like magar, gurung, dalit,
newar, bhramins and chhetris. The main population of the people is agriculture.
Animal hisbandry is also one of the occupation of the people living here.
Besides these trade and industry are also the income source of the people of
Sahidbhumi rural municipality.. People mainly celebrate Dashain ad Tihar.
People are very friendly and co-operative.
The main products of this municipality are
orange, sugarcane, maize, wheat, etc. The animals like pig, cow, goat, he are reared.
There is less strict in norms and values in the Rai community. There is no any
discrimination among male and female. Both male and female have rights of
As 80% of the people are Rai, the culture
is abit diggerent. People wear white tika at the time of Dashain. After the
ending of Tihat, from Kartik purnima, a kind of festival is celebrate which is
called ‘papani’. This festival last for six days. People do fasting during
these six days. Pople do not do any kind of outdoor works. They gather in one
place and sing a song called ‘lahare git’ and dance a cultural dance which is
called ‘Chandi nach’. man used to play Dhol. The people enjoy the festival with
grat joy and happiness.
The another important festival of Rai are Ubhauli and Udhauli parva. These
two festivals falls on the Baishakh purnima and Bhadra putnima. People
pray for the growth of crops in high amount at Ubhauli parva and prey for
happy life at Udhauli parba. People dance Chandi nach at these festivals.
There is a culture of sacrifising animals at the holy temple and seek for
the wishes. S there is also the culture of love marriage and arrange marriage. Bhagi bibaha is also prioitize.
Sahidbhumi rural municipality is a developing municipality. There is less
influence of western culture. Although there Is a little change in some
tradition. There is a change In death ritual. At past people only used
to burry the death body. There was no any ritual of burning the death body.
But now a days, people not only burry the body but also make a little home,
chauyata, patipauwa, wtc in the name of the death person. Now a days some
of the people also starts bunting the death body. There is no any strict rules and regulation
that should be followed by the family of death person.
As the main festivals of Rai are Ubhauli, Udhauli and Papani, people of
the Sahidbhumi also started celebrating teej and holi which was not celebrator
in the past. The other culture and tradition are not being changed. People
used to drink alcohal very much at the past bit die to the awareness people
decrease the amount of alcohol now a days. People of Sahidbhumi municipality
are saving there culture. Although some of the change occurs in the way
of celebration, the culture and tradition are not being distinct.
Dhankuta district is also famous for
its cultire. The language spoken by the Rai people is also famous and one of
the reason of tourism. Though migration from rural to urban is increasing people
do not let their culture to be distinct. All the people gather in the time of
celebration. People love their culture and they are proud to be Rai. There was
and is a mutual co-operation among the people.
Condition of youth in Sahidbhumi municipality:
municipality is a developing area. To develop any place, the youth of that
place plays a great role. The youth are the one who are the main part of
developing. The effort of youth is the way of fast developing. With the time
passes the condition of youth also change. Most of the youth are influence by
westernization and modernization. They slowly and gradually starts to forget
their own culture and tradition. But in the case of Sahid bhumi municipality,
the youth are less influence by westernization.
Sahid bhumi municipality is a municipality of peace and co-operation all the people of this municipality live here with mutual understanding and co-operation. The main way of income is agriculture so the youth also involve in agriculture and help their parents. Therefore the Sahid bhumi municipality is always peaceful and developing in a right way.（Sahidbhumi地域は、住民がお互い理解し合え、連帯感が強いところであることがわかりました。
（意訳 ： 五十嵐園子 かなりの意訳ですので、関心ある方は原文を読んでくださいね。）
MANGAL MULTIPLE CAMPUS
Practical of Sociology and Anthropology
（ チョパール村を社会学、人類学からみた調査 について ）
Research of social change and condition of foreign employment of Kirtipur Chovar
Submitted by :Asmitasainju Class : 11 Roll.No. : 16
＊Social change and condition of foreign employment
Social change may refer to the notion of social progress or sociocultural evolution, the philosophical idea that society moves forward by evolutionary means. It may refer to a paradigmatic change in the socio-economic structure, for instance a shift away from feudalism and towards capitalism. In other other social change refers to the innovative and positive changes which influence positive result in the Similarly Going from one country to another country for job and to earn money is called foreign employment. People of Nepal go to different countries of the world for jobs and earning. It uplifts the life standard of the people and has become an important source of earning foreign currency. Due to lack of job opportunity, many Nepalese youths are compelled to go to various countries of the world in search of jobs. This trend is increasing day by day. It has an immediate。benefit but it is not beneficial for a long term. The Nepalese labour and sweat is being used in foreign countries and there is scarcity of human power for the development of our own country.
＊Introduction and history
Chobhar is a village in Kathmandu District in the Bagmati Zone of central Nepal and part of Kirtipur Municipality. At the time of the 1991 Nepal census it had a population of 5,627 and had 1,109 households in it. Chobhar gorge, where the Manjushree Cave is located, is related with the interesting legends of the origin of Kathmandu Valley. ... So he cut a deep gorge allowing the water to drain from the lake because he wanted to observe and worship the lotus. Chobhar is known for the nearby Chobhar Gorge where there are the Chobhar caves. There is also a temple, Jal Binayak Temple and AdinathLokeshwar, that is sacred to both Buddhists and Hindus.There is beautiful herbs and suburbs along with lime stone adding its more beauty in the town.
One of the biggest income generation of this village is through the supply of Water and the tourist site Manjushree Park.
The past condition of Chovar in foreign employment-The history of formal entrance of Nepalese citizens in foreign employment begins in. This situationhas created more difficulty in securing employment within the people are have also been migrating to Malaysia over the past three years. The main occupation of this area was agriculture, industrial and tourism. Chovar was culturally rich due to which many tourist use to visit there. The business of limestone was rapidly increased. Chovar was least populated and had the sound prospect in getting employment on social cultural and tourism aspects. So the youths were ingaged in agriculture and in industrial sector. So the youths did not migrate in foreign countries.
The current situation of foreign employment of Chovar-
Nov 15, 2000 - of patterns and working conditions of foreign employment Nepal has maintained its independence as a distinct
political, social and cultural identity suggestions for improving the Nepalese foreign employment situation.
Due to modernization and urbanization, the youth of chovar has been migrated in foreign country for employment. Large number of people move to foreign due to their semi-skills for employment. Maximum of youth goes to foreign for employment and minimum are for study.
＊Problem and challenges in Chovar due to social change
It has the trend that the youth directly attracts towards the foreign countries. the youth have the habit of copying of others so in this present context maximum of the youth move abroad as a fashion. As chovar is a developing town, many of the youths goes to abroad to earn money. The only one industry of chovar which was the way of earning is being closed therefore the youth are going for abroad. In today’s context materialistic is more prioritized. The western culture is practiced in Nepal also as a result every people stats practicing those culture which harm the culture.
Innovative social change is good but the attraction towards foreign should be decreased. Our village or town be big or small, we the people living in it should think about our habitats. Instead of abroading, we should do hard work in our own place. Foreign employment is good in one hand but in today’s days maximum of the youth left the place and become the permanent residence of the foreign. Therefore only the weak old and children left back. We should go to foreign and utilize the skills and knowledge we learned there in our country. Therefore, foreign employment should be limit and the practice of western culture should be stop.
出稼ぎに行った大部分の若者たちは、帰国せず外国に住み着いている。仕事で得たスキルや知識を国に還元すべきなのに。しかし、村には老人たちと子供たちしか残されていない。村の未来を考えると、出稼ぎや外国文化の流入には、何か制限を設けるべきだと考える。（ 意訳：久堀洋子 ）
★ 三木靖子 様
★ 匿名希望者 様 ２名
★ ネパーネ 様
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